martes, 19 de enero de 2021

Farewell Address of President Donald J. Trump


My fellow Americans four years ago, we launched a great national effort to rebuild our country, to renew its spirit and to restore the allegiance of this government, to its citizens. In short, we embarked on a mission to make America great. Again, for all Americans. As I conclude my term as the 45th president of the United States, I stand before you truly proud of what we have achieved together.

We did what we came here to do. And so much more this week we integrate a new administration and pray for its success in keeping America safe and prosperous. We extend our best wishes and we also want them to have of luck, a very important word. I'd like to begin by thanking just a few of the amazing people who made our remarkable journey possible.

First, let me express my overwhelming gratitude for the love and support of our spectacular first lady Melania. Let me also share my deepest appreciation to my daughter, Ivanka my son-in-law Jared, and to Baron, Don, Eric, Tiffany and Laura. You feel my world with light. And with joy. I also want to thank vice-president Mike Pence, his wonderful wife, Karen, and the entire Pence family.

We did what we came here to do. And so much more this week we integrate a new administration and pray for its success in keeping America safe and prosperous. We extend our best wishes and we also want them to have of luck, a very important word. I'd like to begin by thanking just a few of the amazing people who made our remarkable journey possible.

Thank you as well to my chief of staff, Mark Meadows, the dedicated members of the white house staff and the cabinet, and all of the incredible people across our administration who poured out their heart and soul to fight for America. I also want to take a moment to thank a truly exceptional group of people.

The United States secret service, my family, and I will forever be in your debt. My profound gratitude as well to everyone in the white house, military office, that teams of Marine one and air force one, every member of the armed forces and state and local law enforcement all across our country. Most of all, I want to thank the American people.

To serve as your president has been an honor beyond description. Thank you for this extraordinary privilege. And that's what it is a great privilege. And a great honor. We must never forget that while Americans will always have our disagreements, we are a nation of incredible, decent, faithful, and peace loving citizens who all want our country to thrive and flourish and be very, very successful and good.

We are a truly magnificent nation. All Americans were horrified by the assault on our capital political violence is an attack on everything we cherish as Americans. It can never be tolerated now more than ever. We must unify around our shared values and rise above the partisan rancor and forge our common destiny.

Four years ago, I came to Washington as the only true outsider. Ever to win the presidency. I had not spent my career as a politician, but as a builder, looking at open skylines and imagining infinite possibilities, I ran for president because I knew there were towering new summits for America, just waiting to be scaled.

I knew the potential for our nation was boundless as long as we put America first. So I left behind my former life. And stepped into a very difficult arena, but in an arena, nevertheless, with all sorts of potential, if properly done, America had given me so much and I wanted to give something back together with millions of hardworking Patriots across this land, we built the greatest political movement in the history of our country.

We also built the greatest economy in the history of the world. It was about America first because we all wanted to make America great. Again, we restored the principle that a nation exists to serve its citizens. Our agenda was not about right or left. It wasn't about Republican or Democrat, but about the good of a nation.

And that means the whole nation with the support and prayers of the American people, we achieved more than anyone thought possible. Nobody thought we could even come close. We passed the largest package of tax cuts and reforms in American history. We slashed bore job killing regulations, and any administration had ever done before we fix a broken trade deals, withdrew from the horrible trans Pacific partnership and the impossible Paris climate accord renegotiated the one-sided South Korea deal.

And we replaced NAFTA with the groundbreaking U S MCA that's Mexico and Canada, a deal that's worked out very, very well also. And very importantly, we imposed historic and monumental tariffs on China made a great new deal with China, but before the ink was even dry, we and the whole world got hit with the China virus.

Our trade relationship was rapidly changing billions and billions of dollars were pouring into the U S but the virus forced us to go in a different direction. The whole world suffered, but America outperformed other countries economically because of our incredible economy and the economy that we built without the foundations and footings.

It wouldn't have worked out this way. We wouldn't have some of the best numbers we've ever had. We also unlocked our energy resources and became the world's number one producer of oil and natural gas by far powered by these policies, we built the greatest economy in the history of the world. We reignited America's job creation and achieved record, low unemployment.

For African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, women, almost everyone income sword wages boomed. The American dream was restored and medians were lifted from poverty in just a few short years. It was a miracle stock bark had set one record after another, with 148 stock market highs during the short period of time.

And boosted the retirements and pensions of hardworking citizens all across our nation. 401ks are at a level they've never been at before. We've never seen numbers like we've seen and that's before the pandemic and after the pandemic, we rebuilt the American manufacturing base. Opened up thousands of new factories and brought back the beautiful phrase made in the USA to make life better for working families.

We doubled the child tax credit and signed the largest ever expansion of funding for childcare and development. We joined with the private sector to secure commitments, to train more than 16 million American workers. For the jobs of tomorrow, when our nation was hit with the terrible pandemic, we produced not one, but two vaccines with record-breaking speed and more will quickly follow.

They said it couldn't be done, but we did it. They called it a medical miracle. And that's what they're calling it right now. A medical. Miracle another administration would have taken three, four, five, maybe even up to 10 years to develop a vaccine. We did it in nine months. We grieve for every life lost and we pledge in their memory to wipe out this horrible pandemic once.

And for all, when the virus took its brutal toll on the world's economy, we launched the fastest economic recovery our country has ever seen. We passed nearly $4 trillion in economic relief saved or supported over 50 million jobs and slashed the unemployment rate. And half. These are numbers that our country has never seen before.

We created choice and transparency in healthcare stood up to big pharma in so many ways, but especially in our effort to get favored nations clauses added, which will give us the lowest prescription drug prices. Anywhere in the world, we pass VA choice, VA accountability, right? To try and landmark criminal justice reform.

We confirmed three new justices of the United States Supreme court. We appointed nearly 300 federal judges to interpret our constitution. As written for years, the American people pleaded with Washington to finally secure the nation's borders. I am pleased to say we answered that plea and achieved the most secure border in us history.

We have given our brave border agents and heroic ice officers, the tools they need to do their jobs better than they have ever done before. And to enforce our laws and keep America safe. We proudly leave the next administration with the strongest and most robust border security measures. Ever put into place.

This includes historic agreements with Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador, along with more than 450 miles of powerful new wall. We restored American strength at home and American leadership abroad. The world respects us again, please don't lose that respect. We reclaimed our sovereignty by standing up for America at the United nations and withdrawing from the one-sided global deals that never served our interests and NATO countries are now paying hundreds of billions of dollars.

More than when I arrived just a few years ago, it was very unfair. We were paying the cost for the world. Now the world is helping us and perhaps most importantly of all. With nearly $3 trillion. We fully rebuilt the American military all made in the USA. We launched the first new branch of the United States, armed forces and 75 years the space force.

And last spring, I stood at Kennedy space center in Florida and watched as American astronauts returned to space on American rockets for the first time in many, many years. We revitalize our alliances and rallied the nations of the world to stand up to China. Like never before we obliterated the ISIS caliphate and ended the wretched life of its founder and leader al-Baghdadi we stood up to the oppressive Iranian regime and killed the world's top terrorists, Iranian butcher Qassem Soleimani.

We recognize your roots alum is the capital of Israel and recognized Israeli sovereignty over the Golan Heights. As a result of our bold diplomacy and principled realism, we achieved a series of historic peace deals, middle East. Nobody believed it could happen. The Abraham Ford's opened the doors to a future of peace and harmony.

Not violence and bloodshed. It is the Dawn of a new middle East, and we are bringing our soldiers home. I am especially proud to be the first president in decades. Who has started no new Wars above all. We have reasserted the sacred idea that in America, the government answers to the people, our guiding light, our North star, our unwavering conviction has been that we are here to serve the noble everyday citizens of America.

Our allegiance is not to the special interests corporations or global entities it's to our children, our citizens, and to our nation itself. As president my top priority, my constant concern has always been the best interest of American workers and American families. I did not seek the easiest course by far.

It was actually the most difficult I did not seek the path that would get the least criticism I took on the tough battles, the hardest fights, the most difficult choices, because that's what you elected me to do. Your needs were my first and last unyielding focus. This, I hope will be our greatest legacy together.

We put the American people back in charge of our country. We restored self-government. We restored the idea that in America, No one is forgotten because everyone matters and everyone has a voice. We fought for the principle that every citizen is entitled to equal dignity, equal treatment and equal rights because we are all made equal by God.

Everyone is entitled to be treated with respect, to have their voice heard and to have their government. Listen, you are loyal to your country. And my administration was always loyal to you. We work to build a country in which every citizen could find a great job and support their wonderful families. We fought for the communities where every American could be safe and schools where every child could learn.

We promoted a culture where our laws would be upheld. Our heroes honored our history preserved and law abiding citizens are never taken for granted. Americans should take tremendous satisfaction in all that we have achieved together. It's incredible. Now, as I leave the white house, I have been reflecting on the dangers that threaten the priceless inheritance.

We all share as the world's most powerful nation. America faces constant threats and challenges from abroad. But the greatest danger we face is a loss of confidence in ourselves. A loss of confidence in our national greatness. A nation is only as strong as its spirit. We are only as dynamic as our pride.

We are only as vibrant as the faith that beats in the hearts of our people. No nation can long thrive that loses faith in its own values, history and heroes. For these are the very sources of our unity and our vitality. What has always allowed America to prevail in triumph? Over the great challenges of the past has been an unyielding and unashamed conviction in the nobility of our country and its unique purpose in history.

We must never lose this conviction. We must never forsake our belief in America. The key to national greatness lies in sustaining and instilling our shared national identity. That means focusing on what we have in common, the heritage that we all share. At the center of this heritage is also a robust belief in free expression, free speech and open debate.

Only if we forget who we are and how we got here. Could we ever allow political censorship and blacklisting to take place in America? It's not even thinkable, shutting down free and open debate violates our core values. And most enduring traditions in America, we don't insist on absolute conformity or enforce rigid orthodoxies and punitive speech coats.

We just don't do that. America is not a timid nation of tame souls who need to be sheltered and protected from those, with whom we disagree. That's not who we are. It will never be who we are. For nearly 250 years in the face of every challenge, Americans have always summoned are unmatched courage, confidence, and fierce independence.

These are the miraculous traits that once led millions of everyday citizens to set out across a wild continent and carve out a new life in the great West, it was the same profound love of our God-given freedom that willed our soldiers into battle. And our astronauts into space. As I think back on the past four years, one image rises in my mind above all others.

Whenever I traveled all along the motorcade route, there were thousands and thousands of people. They came out with their families so that they could stand. As we passed and proudly wave our great American flag, it never failed to deeply move me. I knew that they did not just come out to show their support of me.

They came out to show me their support and love for our country. This is a Republic, a proud citizens who are United by our common conviction, that America is the greatest nation in all of history. We are, and must always be a land of hope of light and of glory to all the world. This is the precious inheritance that we must safeguard at every single turn for the past four years, I have worked to do just that.

From a great hall of Muslim leaders in rat to a great square of Polish people in Warsaw from the floor of the Korean assembly, to the podium at the United nations general assembly, and from the forbidden city in Beijing to the shadow of Mount Rushmore, I fought for you. I fought for your family. I fought for our country.

Above all I fought for America and all it stands for, and that is safe, strong, proud, and free. Now, as I prepare to hand power over to a new administration at noon on Wednesday, I want you to know that the movement we started is only just beginning. There's never been anything like it. The belief that a nation must serve its citizens.

Well, not dwindle, but instead, only grows stronger by the day. As long as the American people hold in their hearts, deep and devoted love of country, then there is nothing that this nation can not achieve. Our communities will flourish. Our people will be prosperous. Our traditions will be cherished. Our faith will be strong and our future will be brighter than ever before I go from this majestic place.

With a loyal and joyful heart and optimistic spirit. And they Supreme confidence that for our country and for our children, the best is yet to come. Thank you and farewell. God bless you. God bless the United States of America.

domingo, 23 de junio de 2019

El viaje de las almas al más allá.El infierno de los griegos.

Según la mitología, tras la muerte las almas de los hombres iban a parar a un lúgubre reino subterráneo, gobernado por el terrible dios Hades y su esposa Perséfone. Héroes como Orfeo, Heracles o Ulises se atrevieron a visitarlo.

Al igual que el cristianismo y otras religiones creen en un Más Allá donde pervive el alma, los griegos de la Antigüedad también imaginaban un inframundo al que las almas de hombres y mujeres eran conducidas tras su muerte. Para los griegos, el reino de los muertos estaba bajo el poder de Hades, hermano de Zeus y Poseidón. Estos tres dioses viriles y barbados, que encarnan la masculinidad regia en el panteón griego, se repartieron los diversos ámbitos de nuestro mundo tras derrocar a su tiránico padre Crono y vencer a los poderosos Titanes en una épica lucha por el dominio del universo.

Conocer el Más Allá

La visión que tenían los griegos del Más Allá cambió con el tiempo. Al principio, el inframundo o Hades –como se le llamaba por el dios que lo gobernaba– parecía un lugar poco deseable, como cuenta a Odiseo (el Ulises romano) la sombra del héroe Aquiles en un episodio de la Odisea de Homero; Aquiles manifiesta su deseo de volver a la tierra como sea, incluso como un simple jornalero. Sin embargo, al menos desde el siglo VI a.C. se empezó a ver el Más Allá desde una perspectiva ética, con una división de los muertos entre justos e injustos a los que corresponden premios o castigos según su comportamiento en vida. Así, se creía que los justos se dirigían a un lugar placentero en el Hades, los Campos Elíseos, o a las Islas de los Bienaventurados, el reino idílico del viejo Crono, convertido en soberano de ese Más Allá. Seguramente esta nueva concepción del inframundo obedecía al desarrollo de la idea de la inmortalidad del alma, e incluso a la introducción del concepto de reencarnación por parte de algunas sectas religiosas y filosóficas.

El deseo de conocer cómo era el Más Allá para encajar nuestra alma mejor en él propició el desarrollo de uno de los motivos más fascinantes de la cultura griega: el descenso a los infiernos o katábasis. La literatura griega posee numerosos relatos sobre héroes míticos o épicos, así como filósofos o figuras chamánicas, que descendían al reino de Hades para cumplir una misión, obtener conocimiento religioso o, simplemente, probar la experiencia mística de morir antes de la muerte física para conseguir un saber privilegiado. Una de las historias más famosas es la del cantor Orfeo, figura mítica que se convertiría en patrón de una secta mistérica de gran predicamento, que garantizaba a sus iniciados una vida más feliz después de la muerte. Otros héroes viajeros, como Odiseo y Eneas, o figuras divinas como Dioniso y Hefesto, coinciden en la peripecia de ida y vuelta al inframundo.

Hubo asimismo figuras semilegendarias a las que se atribuyó un especial conocimiento del Más Allá gracias al vuelo del alma o démon para visitar esas regiones antes de su hora postrera. Un ejemplo es Abaris, un mítico sacerdote de Apolo Hiperbóreo que, según la leyenda, viajaba sobre una flecha de oro voladora y era amigo de Pitágoras. O Zalmoxis, un chamán tracio del que se cuentan extrañas noticias sobre un descenso subterráneo para mostrar que era capaz de morir y renacer. Otro caso es el del viajero y poeta Aristeas de Proconeso, del que se contaba que cayó muerto en un batán y luego fue visto en distintos lugares. Decía de sí mismo que había acompañado a Apolo en un viaje espiritual transformado en cuervo. También el filósofo Pitágoras realizó varios descensos al otro mundo a través de grutas.

Entradas infernales

Tan enraizada estaba durante la Antigüedad la creencia en el inframundo, que existían numerosas tradiciones que situaban la entrada al infierno en puntos geográficos concretos. Podía tratarse de lagunas, pues el agua era el elemento conductor por excelencia, como el lago del Averno, cerca de Nápoles, que ocupa el cráter de un volcán extinto y cuyos gases tóxicos acababan con la vida de las aves que intentaban anidar en sus proximidades. También podía tratarse de grietas en el suelo, como la que se abría bajo el Plutonio o Puerta de Plutón en Hierápolis (actual Turquía), o una fisura en Sicilia, en la antigua Ena, por donde se decía que Hades salió del inframundo para raptar a Perséfone.

Algunas grutas o cuevas que también se han considerado puertas al infierno son la cueva Coricia, en una ladera del monte Parnaso, cerca del santuario del dios Apolo en Delfos, o las cuevas del cabo Ténaro en Grecia. La boca al infierno por excelencia en Occidente se identificó con la cueva de la Sibila en Cumas, cerca del lago Averno, lugar donde vivían estas mujeres que podían profetizar el futuro. En la Eneida de Virgilio, el príncipe troyano Eneas, guiado por la Sibilia de Cumas, entra en la cueva para acceder al reino de Hades.

Estas grutas de paso al Más Allá se encontraban a menudo junto a importantes oráculos: el de Éfira, donde una tradición afirma que Ulises bajó al inframundo por indicación de la maga Circe para consultar el espíritu del adivino Tiresias; el antiguo oráculo de la diosa Gea (la Tierra) en Olimpia, bajo el cual se abría una grieta en el suelo, según Pausanias; el oráculo de Apolo en Ptoion; el santuario oracular de Trofonio en Lebadea, o el oráculo que había en Heraclea Póntica (en la actual Turquía), míticamente situado en la desembocadura del río Aqueronte, al Oriente. Hoy en día hay allí una gruta llamada Cehennemagzi (en turco, "puerta del infierno").

La geografía del inframundo

Las múltiples descripciones del Hades por autores antiguos y modernos permiten representar el desolador paisaje del infierno de los griegos, repleto de lugares horrendos. Tras entrar por cualquiera de las bocas del infierno existentes, el difunto se dirigía a la orilla del Estige, el río que rodea el inframundo y que cruzaba a bordo de la barca de Caronte. En la otra ribera el alma se encontraba con el guardián Cerbero y con los tres jueces del inframundo. Los autores explican que en su penar por el Hades las almas encuentran tres ríos de infausto recuerdo: el Aqueronte o río de la aflicción, el Flegetonte o río ardiente y el Cocito, el río de los lamentos. También separan nuestro mundo del Más Allá otros lugares prodigiosos, como las aguas del Leteo, el río del Olvido, que John Milton describe en su Paraíso perdido. Las almas de los justos van a parar a lugares felices como los Campos Elíseos o las Islas de los Bienaventurados. Los iniciados en los misterios, que a veces se hacían enterrar con instrucciones para emprender su viaje, se aseguraban la llegada sin problemas a los Campos Elíseos invocando el poderoso nombre de Deméter, Orfeo o Dioniso. Por último estaba el Tártaro, lugar de tormento eterno donde iban a parar los condenados.

Más datos sobre el inframundo

El guía de las almas 
Hermes, mensajero de los dioses y guía de las almas hacia el inframundo, aparece rodeado de los espíritus de los difuntos que esperan a orillas del Estige para ser transportados por Caronte al reino de Hades. Óleo por Adolf Hirémy-Hirschl. 1898. Galería Belvedere, Viena.

La pasión del dios infernal
Gian Lorenzo Bernini  recrea el rapto de Perséfone contemplado por el can Cerbero. 1622. Galería Borghese, Roma.

Monedas para pagar el pasaje
Era costumbre colocar en la boca del difunto una moneda para pagar el viaje a Caronte. Si el alma no disponía de moneda, se veía obligada a vagar durante cien años por las orillas del Estige hasta que el barquero accedía a llevarla gratis. Moneda con el rostro de Perséfone, 260 a.C. Numismática Jean Vinchon, París.

Cortejo funerario 
En los entierros, las mujeres iban detrás del cortejo y sólo podían acudir si tenían más de 60 años, a no ser que fueran familiares próximas. En cambio, para los ritos fúnebres se contrataban flautistas, cantantes, plañideras y danzantes, como las que aparecen en esta escena, procedente de una tumba de Ruvo, en la Campania, del siglo IV a.C.
Hipnos y Tánatos 
En las tumbas, sobre todo las femeninas, se acostumbraba a disponer como ofrenda un tipo de cerámica característico, el lécito, de color blanco y decorado con escenas apenas esbozadas. El que se reproduce junto a estas líneas, atribuido al llamado pintor de Tánatos, muestra a los gemelos Hipnos y Tánatos levantando el cuerpo de un guerrero. Siglo V a.C. Museo Británico, Londres.

Los jueces del inframundo 
Gustave Doré realizó en el siglo XIX esta inquietante pintura en la que aparecen los tres grandes jueces del inframundo: Minos, Radamantis y Éaco, entronizados y dispuestos a juzgar a la miríada de almas que se agolpan temerosas y desesperadas a sus pies. Museo de Bellas Artes de La Rochelle.

Heracles y Cerbero 
Uno de los doce "trabajos" de Heracles consistía en bajar a los infiernos para llevarse al can Cerbero. El héroe se presentó ante Hades para pedirle que le prestara a su guardián. El dios accedió, siempre y cuando Heracles pudiera atraparlo con las manos desnudas. Éste es el momento que recrea muy gráficamente el óleo de Domenico Pedrini, que muestra al héroe, con su clava y cubierto con la piel de león, arrastrando encadenado al fiero can fuera del Hades. Siglo XVIII.

Tiziano muestra en este óleo, pintado entre 1548 y 1549, el terrible castigo al que fue condenado Sísifo, el embaucador que se había atrevido a engañar al mismísimo dios infernal. Fue condenado a empujar una enorme roca hasta lo alto de una colina, para luego verla caer y volver a empezar de nuevo. Prado, Madrid.

Tras obtener el perdón de Zeus por matar al rey Deyoneo, su suegro, Ixión, rey de los lapitas, intentó seducir a Hera, esposa de Zeus. Furioso, el dios lo castigó atándolo a una rueda ardiente que giraba sin cesar y lo precipitó al Tártaro, junto con los grandes criminales. El cruel castigo se muestra en este óleo de Jules-Élie Delaunay, de 1876. Museo de Bellas Artes, Nantes.

domingo, 16 de junio de 2019

martes, 11 de junio de 2019

viernes, 7 de junio de 2019

Un leve poema de amor

Llegaste sin previo aviso,
sorprendiste mi otoño llenando
mi abandonado jardín
de frescas rosas y alegres mariposas.

Tenuemente cobijaste
mis noches de invierno,
ahuyentaste  el frío
de mis insomnes madrugadas,
sustituiste a la alondra que cantaba,
al amanecer, en mi ventana.

Me devolviste la risa..
Las ilusiones...
Los sueños olvidados
en la gaveta de lo prohibido...

Y me fui enamorando de ti
como quien se enamora
de la brisa del mar
que se desliza por el cuerpo,
penetrando por cada poro
de la desnuda piel...

Brisa de mar,
frescura de la mañana,
olas que se rompen
 en la lejana playa,
aire de mar que llega suave,
firme, transparente,
sembrando instintos,
deseos incontrolables...

Y me fui acercando a ti
acariciando tu rostro,
besando tus labios...

Descubrí en tus negras pupilas,
la fuente de mi vida,
y te estoy queriendo así:
Esperanza E Serrano

martes, 23 de abril de 2019